There is no ‘immaculate conception’ in the birth of a profession. Professionalization is driven by the collective exertions of a cohesive occupational group competing in the public arena. Thus, medicine triumphed over homeopathy. Psychiatry took over the terrain of personal relationships previously occupied by the clergy. Accountants fought their way from book keeping and cost accounting to management advisory services.
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Robert Picciotto's blog
“It is the value feature that distinguishes evaluation from other types of inquiry, such as basic research, clinical epidemiology, investigative journalism, or public polling” (Fournier, 2005 ).